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精装书生产工艺及质量控制的秘诀~

文章作者:华政印务 发布时间:2022-07-26
随着人们对图书阅读需求的逐渐增加,精装书的装帧设计和质量要求也随之发生改变,以前的手工精装制作已经逐渐由精装联动线(精装龙)所取代,本人将多年来在精装书生产工艺分析及质量控制中总结的经验教训,和大家一起分享交流。
With the gradual increase of people's demand for books, the binding design and quality requirements of hardcover books have also changed. The previous manual hardcover production has been gradually replaced by the hardcover linkage line (Hardcover dragon). I will share with you the experience and lessons summarized in the production process analysis and quality control of hardcover books over the years.
印前工艺策划和工艺评审,须对客户的产品需求充分了解、全面掌握。
Prepress process planning and process review must fully understand and comprehensively grasp the product needs of customers.
(1)任何一本精装书的实现必须提供成品尺寸。
(1) The realization of any hardcover book must provide the finished size.
(2)印张数。
(2) Number of printed sheets.
(3)使用材料,包括纸张类别、厚度等。
(3) Materials used, including paper type, thickness, etc.
(4)装订方式(圆背、方背),其后该精装书的相关参数基本可以通过逆运算得到,包括内单和外单装箱规格、搁凳规格、单位吨重、货柜规格等。
(4) Binding method (round back, square back), and then the relevant parameters of the hardcover book can be basically obtained through inverse calculation, including the packing specification of the inner list and the outer list, the stool specification, the unit weight, the container specification, etc.
(5)确认精装书的规格尺寸是否符合精装龙设计的三粘套合的尺寸范围(超大、超小、超厚、超薄,大/小规16开,32开和正度64开均可在精装龙上实现,特殊规格还可拆除部分防护进行操作),尤其要区分竖式开本和横式开本,厚度要求必须到位,否则进不了机器。
(5) Confirm whether the specification and size of the hardcover book meet the size range of the three adhesive sleeve designed by the hardcover Dragon (super large, super small, super thick, ultra-thin, large / small size 16 open, 32 open and positive 64 open can be realized on the hardcover dragon, and some protection can be removed for special specifications for operation), especially distinguish between vertical and horizontal folios, and the thickness requirements must be in place, otherwise you can't enter the machine.
(6)系列书在书帖背上带全帖次、折标、书名的前提下,采用折标分色,同时代码标识到位,防止混印、混装。为确保折页规矩,在印刷制版前,会添加一条固定印刷规矩的线,使用此线压线印刷,能够减少后续分切造成的折页困难。
(6) On the premise of carrying full post times, folding labels and book titles on the back of the book, the series books adopt folding labels to separate colors, and the code marks are in place to prevent mixed printing and mixed loading. In order to ensure the folding rules, a line with fixed printing rules will be added before printing and plate making. Using this line to press the line for printing can reduce the folding difficulties caused by subsequent slitting.
(7)对于精装书纸张尺寸的选定,除一定要满足印刷设备的要求外,还需将后道精装加工过程中的锁线工序考虑在内。如精装书在印刷时要预留除切口外8~10mm纸边,便于锁线机开帖、分帖,防止锁线夹层。
(7) For the selection of the paper size of hardcover books, in addition to meeting the requirements of printing equipment, the sewing process in the subsequent hardcover processing should also be taken into account. For example, when printing hardcover books, 8 ~ 10mm paper edges should be reserved except for the incision, so as to facilitate the opening and splitting of stitching machine and prevent the stitching interlayer.
印中按照客户需求印制
Printed in accordance with customer requirements
印中必须严格按照客户需求执行,依据原稿跟色样、内容样及后续装订,将产品印制到位。
Printing must be carried out in strict accordance with customer needs, and the products must be printed in place according to the original color sample, content sample and subsequent binding.
(1)重点产品必须检查印刷机的橡皮布,需在确认橡皮布没有压损、压瘪的情况下,保证印品的图文质量。
(1) For key products, the blanket of the printing machine must be checked, and the graphic quality of the printed products must be guaranteed when it is confirmed that the blanket is not damaged or deflated.
(2)印刷时每个印张均须签样,机长、带班主任必须对文字、内容、墨色、规格确认到位;在印中强调印刷规矩,便于下单锁线工序操作,如16开,印刷规矩要左右居中;32开,印刷规矩要上下、左右居中。
(2) When printing, each printed sheet must be signed, and the captain and the head teacher must confirm the text, content, ink color and specification in place; During printing, the printing rules should be emphasized to facilitate the operation of the single locking process. For example, 16 open, the printing rules should be centered on the left and right; 32 open, the printing rules should be up and down, left and right in the middle.
(3)根据印数大小,必须有小时段留样、自检记录。
(3) According to the print size, there must be a small period of sample retention and self inspection records.
(4)每个班次之间印刷的产品必须带工号,以示区别。
(4) The products printed between each shift must bear the job number to show the difference.
(5)印刷中如有换版情况,当班机长必须如实填写换版记录。
(5) If there is a version change during printing, the captain on duty must truthfully fill in the version change record.
(6)遵循先印先出的原则,产品标识、状态标识要齐全。
(6) Follow the principle of first printing first out, and the product identification and status identification should be complete.
印后工艺改善及效果
Post press process improvement and effect
01封面
01 cover
精装书的封面丝缕方向必须和书背平行,否则成型后沟槽处横纹明显,皱纹影响美观,无法去除。具体鉴定办法,通常查看来料标注即可,如787mm×1092mm、889mm×1194mm,一般后面的尺寸就是丝缕方向。但是对艺术纸要非常小心,需到现场鉴定确认到位。
The direction of the silk thread on the cover of a hardcover book must be parallel to the back of the book, otherwise the transverse lines at the groove after forming are obvious, and the wrinkles affect the beauty and cannot be removed. The specific identification method is usually to check the incoming material label, such as 787mm × 1092mm、889mm × 1194mm. Generally, the size of the back is the direction of the thread. However, you should be very careful with art paper, and you need to go to the scene to identify and confirm it in place.
具体办法有两种,一是折页法,看其折边是否开裂,如果开裂该折边方向一定是横纹,和其垂直的方向就是顺纹;二是操水法,将要测试的纸张顺边裁切一张16开大小,单面操水后看其四边中的两边卷曲的方向,即丝缕方向。
There are two specific methods. One is the folding method, to see whether the folding edge is cracked. If it is cracked, the folding direction must be horizontal, and the direction perpendicular to it is parallel; The second is the water operation method. Cut a piece of paper to be tested along the side with a size of 16 Kai. After water operation on one side, look at the curling direction of both sides in its four sides, that is, the thread direction.
需要注意的是,冬季为了缩短判定时间要提高水温,否则不能立竿见影。艺术纸如果在制壳前未将丝缕方向确认到位,如果是横纹在圆背精装制壳时,其250g/m2的中经纸板和封面之间就会形成空泡和皱褶,无法生产合格的成品书壳;其次无论是方背、圆背精装书,只要是横纹套合成型后的沟槽一定会有皱褶,影响美观。艺术纸的封面如果在制壳前还有其他工艺,损失将会更大。
It should be noted that in order to shorten the judgment time in winter, the water temperature should be increased, otherwise it can not be achieved immediately. If the thread direction of art paper is not confirmed in place before making the shell, and if it is horizontally tattooed in the round back hardcover, bubbles and wrinkles will be formed between the 250g/m2 medium warp paperboard and the cover, and the qualified finished book case cannot be produced; Secondly, whether it is a square back or a round back hardcover book, as long as the groove after the horizontal pattern is nested and formed, there will be wrinkles, which will affect the beauty. If there are other processes for the cover of art paper before shell making, the loss will be greater.
为了保证封面后续加工工艺的质量,包括烫印、局部UV、套书书背字高度一致等,印刷时尽量减少拼印,必要时仅单拼印刷。覆膜产品如有烫印工艺,应考虑先烫印还是先覆膜,需按照客户需求来定,各有利弊。不覆膜的艺术纸制壳时,必须和其后的三粘套合同步进行,保持书壳纸张水分,否则沟槽容易开裂。
In order to ensure the quality of the subsequent processing technology of the cover, including hot stamping, local UV, consistent height of the back of the cover book, try to reduce the spell printing when printing, and only single spell printing when necessary. If there is a hot stamping process for film covered products, we should consider whether to hot stamping or film covering first, which should be determined according to the needs of customers. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. When making art paper case without film covering, it must be carried out in step with the subsequent three adhesive sleeve to maintain the moisture of the book case paper, otherwise the groove is easy to crack.
02纸板厚度
02 cardboard thickness
纸版厚度一定要按客户要求执行到位,一般在1.5~3.0mm,通常开本越大或书越厚要选用较厚实的纸板。开料后的纸板最好要用缠绕膜包裹,防止纸板中的水分流失。纸板的丝缕方向一定要和书背平行,否则成品后的起翘是不可逆的。
The thickness of the paper version must be in place according to the customer's requirements, generally 1.5 ~ 3.0mm. Generally, the larger the size or the thicker the book, the thicker the paperboard should be selected. It is best to wrap the opened cardboard with wrapping film to prevent the loss of water in the cardboard. The thread direction of the cardboard must be parallel to the back of the book, otherwise the warping of the finished product is irreversible.
如果纸板的丝缕方向是顺纹,在制壳完成后的后续加工中如击凸、压凹、烫印等因防护不当而形成变形,或者成品下线后因未进行必要的防护而形成起翘变形,可以用二次操水的办法进行还原,是可逆的。如果是海棉加纸板,要确保能在制壳机实现,一定要用模切机下料,且注意双面胶的粘贴方向。
If the thread direction of the paperboard is parallel to the grain, and the deformation is formed due to improper protection in the subsequent processing after the shell making, such as convex striking, concave pressing, hot stamping, etc., or the warping deformation is formed due to the lack of necessary protection after the finished product is offline, it can be restored by secondary water operation, which is reversible. If it is sponge plus paperboard, to ensure that it can be realized in the shell making machine, we must use the die-cutting machine to cut the material, and pay attention to the pasting direction of the double-sided tape.
03环衬丝缕
03 ring lined silk thread
精装书前后环衬的丝缕方向必须和书背保持一致。有两次以上沿页时要事先预留沿口,确保书帖间粘接牢固。为防止沿好后的书帖相互粘连,尽量将环衬长度和书芯长度保持一致。
The thread direction of the front and rear ring linings of hardcover books must be consistent with the back of the book. When there are more than two times along the page, the edge opening should be reserved in advance to ensure that the bonding between the books is firm. In order to prevent the book stickers from sticking to each other, try to keep the length of the ring lining consistent with the length of the book block.
04内文折页
04 inside fold
铜版纸折页时容易划伤、擦伤,为防止折页出现八字皱褶和死折,不能将折边划碎影响锁线时的开帖、分帖。在保证花轮刀齿数不变的情况下,将花轮刀的刀齿缺口在砂轮机上再开大一点。
Coated paper is easy to be scratched and scratched when folding. In order to prevent zigzag folds and dead folds in the folding, the folding edge cannot be scratched to affect the opening and splitting of stitching. Under the condition that the number of teeth of the knurled cutter remains unchanged, open the notch of the knurled cutter on the grinder a little larger.
05配书
05 book matching
精装书完成印前制作确认后,在后道产品装订合成时进行校核。配书必须在确保装顺正确的前提下,严防书帖间的划伤和擦伤,小印张的书帖要调整好吸嘴位置,大墨量铜版纸书帖一定要降低储帖高度,书帖的错帖检测装置一定要在正常工作状态。
After the pre press production and confirmation of the hardcover book, it shall be checked during the binding and synthesis of the subsequent products. On the premise of ensuring the correct loading, the books must be strictly prevented from scratches and scratches between the books. The position of the suction nozzle must be adjusted for the books on the small print sheet. The height of the storage of the books on the large ink coated paper must be reduced, and the wrong post detection device of the books must be in normal working state.
06锁线
06 sewing
(1)根据精装书的成品尺寸,制定相应的针组数,书芯的针组数原则上以不出天头和地脚为限。
(1) According to the finished size of the hardcover book, the corresponding number of needle groups shall be formulated. In principle, the number of needle groups of the book block shall not exceed the sky and the foundation.
(2)正文开料尺寸依据开本规格不同,预置书帖折好后的大小纸边,原则上锁线尽量多用开帖刀分帖,少用吸嘴分帖,具体由锁线机的配置而定。
(2) The cutting size of the text is different according to the size of the folio. The size of the paper edge after the book post is folded is preset. In principle, the locking line should be divided by the opening knife as much as possible and the suction nozzle as little as possible, which depends on the configuration of the sewing machine.
(3)当出现内外套帖或内中外套帖时,在确保书帖大小纸边一致的前提下,需了解马天尼锁线机的错帖识别装置,其他型号机器依据各自配置各有不同。
(3) When there are inner and outer stitches or inner middle and outer stitches, it is necessary to understand the wrong stitching identification device of Martini sewing machine on the premise of ensuring that the size of the book stitches is consistent with the paper edges. Other types of machines are different according to their respective configurations.
(4)正文是铜版纸或者是高定量纸张,遇到版面是满版实地墨色时,一定要在该页的折边处预留3mm白边,以增大摩擦力、帖与帖间的粘接强度,否则锁线后浆背时,该帖次易引起书芯错位,针孔处溢胶,影响产品品质。
(4) The text is coated paper or high weight paper. When the layout is full-size field ink, 3mm white edge must be reserved at the hem of the page to increase the friction force and the bonding strength between posts. Otherwise, when the back of the paste is locked, the post is easy to cause the dislocation of the book block, the glue overflow at the pinhole, and affect the product quality.
(5)为保证书芯的版面平整一致,压脊机压脊后,还需规范码放在搁凳上,用包装带收紧后进行人工时效处理,码放时要求每把印品错位码放,压实书背,书口错开。
(5) In order to ensure that the layout of the book block is flat and consistent, after the ridge pressing machine presses the ridge, it is also necessary to stack it on the bench in a standardized manner, and then conduct artificial aging treatment after tightening with the packaging tape. When stacking, it is required that each printed matter is stacked in a staggered manner, the back of the book is compacted, and the mouth of the book is staggered.
07浆背
07 pulp back
浆背要控制好胶量,防止胶液渗透到内文,有条件时可自带包边纸,杜绝书本与书本之间的粘连。
The amount of glue on the back of the pulp should be controlled to prevent the glue from penetrating into the text. If possible, you can bring your own wrapping paper to prevent the adhesion between books.
08三面刀裁切
08 three sided knife cutting
裁切后的光本成品尺寸必须满足规定的要求,三粘套合后的三面瓢口要基本一致。依据精装图书开本大小8开~64开,在2.5~4.5mm之间。
The size of the cut finished product must meet the specified requirements, and the three sides of the scoop mouth after the three adhesive sleeve must be basically the same. According to the size of hardcover books, it is 8 ~ 64 Kai, between 2.5 ~ 4.5mm.
09精装龙生产
09 hardcover dragon production
圆背精装书在精装龙上实现的基本工作原理为三面刀裁切后,经检验合格的光本流转到精装龙的入口处,通过光本输送带经光控探头依次通过五星轮翻转后,书背朝上进入书芯模块底板上,模块底板的宽度比书芯小2~3mm,书芯通道比书芯大2~3mm。
The basic working principle of the round back hardcover book on the hardcover dragon is that after cutting with a three-sided knife, the checked and qualified light books flow to the entrance of the hardcover dragon, and then turn over through the five-star wheel through the light control probe through the light conveyor belt in turn, and the back of the book faces up into the bottom plate of the book block module. The width of the module bottom plate is 2 ~ 3mm smaller than the book block, and the channel of the book block is 2 ~ 3mm larger than the book block.
通过链轮导杆位移到翻圆轮下,翻转成圆背,翻转的高度由起脊块决定,依据是后面的虎钳夹板夹书高出部分,再通过往复夹书板,夹送到起脊虎钳夹板,夹板的最小距离比书芯小2~3mm,进行扒圆起脊,书芯高出夹板2~3mm左右,上压模的弧长比书背大6mm左右,起脊后由往复夹书板交接给高度调整夹板,调整光本高度后,由往复夹板交接给主机链轮,由主机链轮继续将书芯位移到第一上胶轮粘背胶后,如图1所示。
Move the chain wheel guide rod under the rounding wheel and turn it into a round back. The height of turning is determined by the ridging block. The basis is that the book is higher than the book in the back vise clamping plate, and then it is clamped to the ridging vise clamping plate through the reciprocating book clamping plate. The minimum distance of the clamping plate is 2 ~ 3mm smaller than the book block. Carry out rounding and ridging. The book block is about 2 ~ 3mm higher than the clamping plate, and the arc length of the upper die is about 6mm larger than the book back. After ridging, the reciprocating book clamping plate is handed over to the height adjustment clamping plate, After adjusting the height of the glossy book, the reciprocating splint is handed over to the host sprocket, and the host sprocket continues to move the book block to the first gluing wheel, as shown in Figure 1.
书芯移至第一上胶轮粘背胶
Move the book block to the first upper rubber wheel and stick the back glue
背胶轮的宽度大于书芯弧长2~3mm,胶温为60℃~75℃,特殊情况可以再提高,胶轮高度紧贴在书背上,胶量适宜,具体看拉丝情况。继续位移粘贴纱布,纱布宽度在书芯弧长基础上再加40~50mm,一分为二居中,长度是书芯长度减掉25~30mm,如图2所示。
The width of the back rubber wheel is 2 ~ 3mm longer than the arc length of the book block, and the rubber temperature is 60 ℃ ~ 75 ℃. It can be increased under special circumstances. The height of the rubber wheel is close to the back of the book, and the amount of rubber is appropriate. See the drawing situation for details. Continue to move and paste the gauze. The width of the gauze is 40 ~ 50mm on the basis of the arc length of the book block. It is divided into two and centered. The length is the length of the book block minus 25 ~ 30mm, as shown in Figure 2.
调整纱布宽度
Adjust the width of gauze
其后在主传动链轮的传送下继续到达第二上胶轮上背胶。再位移粘贴堵头布书背纸,书背纸及堵头布的宽度比书背弧长0.5mm左右。书背纸粘帖后,继续由主机链轮传送到柔性成型架,压实后将书芯送出经推书块后,移送至分书刀定位前规后由半月板挑起施胶。书壳由棘轮推送出整面压轮后,书壳的中径纸板经过预热板,再位移至圆背成型模块定型后推出,如图3所示。
After that, it continues to reach the upper back of the second rubber wheel under the transmission of the main drive sprocket. Then shift and paste the back paper of the plug cloth. The width of the back paper and the plug cloth is about 0.5mm longer than the back arc of the book. After the paper on the back of the book is pasted, it will continue to be transferred to the flexible forming frame by the sprocket of the main machine. After compaction, the book block will be sent out, pushed through the book block, transferred to the front gauge of the positioning of the dividing knife, and then lifted by the meniscus for sizing. After the book case is pushed out of the whole pressing wheel by the ratchet, the medium diameter paperboard of the book case passes through the preheating plate, and then moves to the round back forming module to be finalized and pushed out, as shown in Figure 3.
圆背成型模块定型
Shaping of round back forming module
扫环衬和书壳套合形成三粘的完成,经过输送带流转至五星翻转轮光控探头后,由沟槽夹板移送至整幅夹板,依次交接后,流转下线。检验合格后码放到位。
The completion of the three glues formed by the sleeve of the sweeping ring lining and the book case is transferred to the five-star turnover wheel optical control probe through the conveyor belt, and then transferred from the groove splint to the whole splint. After being handed over in turn, it is transferred offline. Stack in place after passing the inspection.

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